Structuring References in Harvard Style
Your professors may sometimes want to refer back to the sources and understand deeply about the matter. So, when citing in Harvard style referencing, you must follow the correct rules, structure, and style.
Harvard Style Referencing in Different Documents
Citation of a Book
Students are expected to mention the number of the page while paraphrasing, summarizing, or quoting directly.
Author’s Name, Year of Publication, Book Title, Publisher’s Name, Publication Place.
Single author: In-text citation
(Holt 1994) or Holt (1994) said that…
Holt, HD 1994, Management practices and principles, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.
The reference list should comprise of names of all the authors.
Citation of eBook
The ideal format to cite an e-book in Harvard style referencing is:
Author’s Name, Publication Year, Title of Online Source, Place: Publisher’s Name, Library Database [Retrieved date].
Entire E-book In-text citations
Drucker, T 2012, Managing the NGOs, Routledge, London. Available from Ebook Library. [4 September 2012]
Citation of Journal
The Harvard style referencing in-text citation and reference listing format contains the following elements:
- Include the names of author/ authors preceded by first initials.
- Publication year of the journal article.
- Mention the article title using single inverted commas.
- Write the journal article in Italics.
- Mention of journal problem and volume number.
- Mention the journal’s page range.
Journal article available via unit readings
(Jones 1995, p. 65)
Jones, W 1995, ‘The competitive advantage and performance of small organizations: a perspective of management,’ International Small Business Journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 65-81. Available from: The University of Australian Library Unit Readings. [5 September 2017]
Citation of a Website
These conventions are needed to be followed if you are citing a website in Harvard-style referencing.
Include the author’s name.
Include the date the page was updated, published, or last revamped.
Mention editor / compiler name.
Website In-text citations
(University London 2012)
University London 2013, University Library Home Page, 25 January 2013, the University of Australia. Available from: the website’s URL. [31 June 2013]
Citation of a Court Case
Citing a legal resource in the Harvard style referencing needs a detailed understanding of the various elements.
In-Text Citations and References
Include the name of the case in italics and place the year in brackets. Remember to use the word “at” instead of “p” when specifying a page reference.
The State of Palestine v. The Commonwealth (1978) 12 CLR 45 Bowie v. Brown (1982) 101 CLR 172 at 179 Reference: The State of Palestine v. The Commonwealth (1978) 12 CLR 45
The standard structure of citation of cases:
Case Title (italics)
Abbreviation of Reporter
First Page number
(R v Mang (2007) 237 CLR 1)
R v Mang (2007) CLR 1.
The standard structure of citation of citing bills:
Citation of a Magazine/Newspaper
Citing a magazine/newspaper resource in the Harvard style referencing needs a detailed understanding of specific rules.
Include the Author’s name or a by-line.
The year of publication should be mentioned in round brackets.
The title of the magazine/newspaper should be mentioned under single quotation marks.
The title of the magazine/newspaper should be written in Italics.
Mention the edition name in round brackets, if necessary.
Day and Month.
“College students and professors are coming together for the protest march” (Lee, 2012, p. 5).
Lee, D. (2012)’ Protest March for Racial Discrimination in College Campuses”, The Daily Press, Melbourne 19 July, p.5.
Dublin, M 2010, ‘The path to success by the under-privileged,’ the Australian, 15 November, p. 32.
Citation of a Dissertation
Before you put anything in the document, you have to consider all the correct formatting guidelines. Here’s all you need to know.
Include the author’s name.
Mention the submission year in round brackets.
The title of the dissertation/thesis should be mentioned in Italics.
Include the degree statement.
Mention the body awarding the degree.
If online sources are mentioned, consider involving:
Available at: URL
Research by Miller (1988) suggests that…
Miller, S. (1988). The Art of Meditation and Yoga. B.A. Dissertation. University of Dundee.
Citation of a Blog
Referencing a blog source in Harvard style referencing is done based on certain guidelines. These components should be mentioned.
Author of the Message.
Publication year /Last updated (mention in round brackets).
Message Title (mention in single quotation marks).
Web site Title (mention in italics).
Day/Month when a message is posted.
The blog’s URL.
The political scenario was (Dawson, 2011) critical with too many contradictions.
Dawson, A. (2011) ‘World Politics in the 70s’, The News-Times, 18 April. Available at: http://www.thenewstimes.com/news/daily-comment/the-world -politics -70s (Accessed: 21 June 2013).
Citation of an Edited Book
Referencing an edited book can be confusing if each chapter has multiple authors in a piece of work. If you are referenced to the edited volume, the aim is to cite the editors. You are expected to cite the chapter authors when mentioning an essay or chapter.
If you cite an edited volume overall, the material included in the reference list is identical to any other book. The only exceptional thing is “ed” which implies that the mentioned name is of the editor and not the book author.
Citing the Entire Edited Volume
Surname of the Editor, Initial. (ed.) (Year of Publication) Title of Book, City of Publication, Name of the Publisher.
Belafonte, S., & Miller, A. (eds.) (1998) The Secret to a Happy Life: Lifestyle and Healthy Living, New York, The BlueDot Printhouse.
Citing a Chapter
Author’s Surname, Initial(s). (Year of Publication) ‘Title of the Chapter,’ in Editor Surname and Initial(s), (ed[s]) Title of Book, Place of Publication: Publisher, page range.
Parker, S (1998) “Of Life and Health,” in Belafonte, S., & Miller, A. (eds.) The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 98-110.
Citation of a Government Publication
Main components you got to look are:
Official committee name, or department of government.
The publication year should be mentioned in round brackets.
The title name should be written in italics.
Mention of the publisher’s name as well as publication name.
Mention the paper number and series and brackets.
For digital sources, you need to count the following components.
(Available at URL)
In 2013, the British government published a report on globalization in the field of technological advancement (Great Britain. Department of Science and Technology, Innovation and Progress, 2013, p. 4)
Great Britain. Department of Science and Technology, Innovation and Progress. (2013)Of Business and Global Expansion: Global Standards in Local Trading. Available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/31116/11-616- Of Business-and-Global-Expansion-Global-Standards-in Local-Trading.pdf (Accessed: 22 July 2015).
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